Email/Fax and Fax/Email gateway software.
Email/Fax and Fax/Email gateway software.














I. - Sources of Information on Fax

I.1 Standards Related to Facsimile Communication

CCITT (now renamed ITU-T)
The Blue Book, Volume VII - Fascicle VII.3 Recommendation T.0 - T.63

EIA/TIA-602 Data Transmission Systems and Equipment-Serial Asynchronous Automatic Dialing and Control (This is the standard for the basic Hayes command set.)

TIA PN-2388
Asynchronous Facsimile DCE Control Standard (DRAFT), Service Class 2, (also known as Document TR-29/89-21R8, March 21, 1990) (The first draft of the Class 2 standard, voted down, but the basis for all current (93Q1) Class 2 modems.)

Asynchronous Facsimile DCE Control Standard, Service Class 1

Asynchronous Facsimile DCE Control Standard, Service Class 2

I.2 Where to Obtain Standards Documents and Related Information

Vendors of Printed Standards

Bellcore (Bell Communications Research)
1 800 521 CORE
Source of telephony standards (i.e. detailed information on how the telephone system works included DID, Caller ID, etc. Does not provide information on facsimile equipment and standards.)
(202) 457-4942 (Yvette Bottoms)
Source of draft EIA/TIA standards (final stds available from Global)
Global Engineering Documents
(800) 854-7179 fax: (202) 331-0960
Distributor for published EIA/TIA standards, as well as ITU-T (CCITT) and standards docs from 400 other organisations and institutions. EIA catalog of standard available at no charge
National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
(703) 487-4650
Philips Business Information Inc. (has acquired assets of OMNICOM)
(301) 424-3338 or 1 (800) 777-5006, FAX: (301) 309-3847
Source of ITU-T (CCITT) and ISO publications
UN Bookstore
ITU-T (CCITT) Publications
+1 (212) 963-7680 or +1 (800) 553-3210
Action Consulting
Source of draft communications standards
Human Communications
(203) 746-4367 FAX: (203) 746-4367
Source of draft communications standards
International Telecommunications Union electronic document distribution service (ITUDOC)
For more information, send a message with the line HELP in the body to: Or telnet to and type gopher as username (no password needed). Or connect to their gopher server directly:

Commonly Referenced Fax Standards


I.3 Magazine Reviews of UNIX Fax Software

UNIX WORLD, August 1991, pp. 52-60, "Four Fitting Fax Packages", Rick Farris
Reviews DigiFax, Faximum, TruFax, and VSI-Fax
UNIX REVIEW, V10n11, Nov 1992, pp. 63-76, "Just the Fax, Ma'am", Tim Parker
Reviews ArnetFAX, DigiFax, Faximum, FaxLink, FaxTrax, VSI-Fax

I.4 Magazine Reviews of DOS/Windows Fax Software

PC Magazine, 8 Dec 1992, v11n21, p275-342, "The Fax Solution", by Joel Dreyfus
Reviews BitFax, DosFax Pro, Eclipse FAX, FAXability Plus, Faxit for DOS Faxit for Windows, FaxMaster, Fax Talk Plus, The Fax Window, Mirror III Fax, MTEZ Standard with ExpressFax, PaperWorks, and SuperFax for Windows.
PC World, Feb 1993 v11n2, "Windows Fax Software", by Bryan Hastings
The article discusses: Bit Software Bit Fax/OCR for windows v2.05; Caere Fax Master 1.01; Delrina WinFax Pro 3.0; Ellipse Fax 1.2; Intel Faxability plus/OCR 1.0; Softnet Faxit 2,.15e; and Zsoft Ultrafax for Windows 1.0.
BYTE, Jan 1993, v18n1, p62-64, "First Impressions", by David Andres
Discusses Delrina's WinFax Pro 3.0
BYTE, Jan 1993, v18n1, p68, "First Impressions", by Dick Pountain
Discusses Trio's Datafax

I.5 Magazine Reviews of Mac Fax Software

MacWorld, Feb 1994 v11n2, "Delrina FaxPro for Macintosh 1.0", by Gene Steinberg

MacWorld, Nov 1993 v10n11, "SupraFaxModem 144PB", by Gene Steinberg
Discusses SupraFaxModem for the Powerbook
Information courtesy of

I.6 Magazine Reviews of Fax Modems (see also O/S specific reviews)

MacWorld, Oct 1993 v10n10, "High-Speed Fax Modems", by Matthew Clark
Discussion and review of 30 modems that run at 9600 bps or faster
NeXTWorld Magazine, Winter 1992, v2n4, p59-60, "Just the Fax" by Simson L. Garfinkel
Reviews Dove, HSD, and ZyXEL.
PC Magazine, 8 Dec 1992, v11n21, p343-361, "Negotiating the Fax Modem Jungle" by Rick Ayre
Reviews Computer Peripherals, Hayes, Intel, Practical Modem, Supra, U.S. Robotics, and Zoom.

I.7 Magazine Reviews of Fax Machines

Consumer Reports, Nov. 1993, v58n11, p722-728, "Fax machines"
A general consumer product review of various fax machines. The article reviews in detail 13 lower-end (i.e thermal paper) fax machines and comments on a couple of higher-end (i.e. plain paper) machines. The Panasonic KX-F230 and the Brother 600 were rated "Best Buys". Get the article to see where the rest ended up and why (reprinting the entire list of ratings would exceed my interpretation of "fair use" w.r.t. copyright).

I.8 Publications Devoted to Fax and Telecommunications

Communications Standards Review [10-12/year, $695/year in N.A.; partial or shorter subs avail., contact publisher]
757 Greer Road,
Palo Alto,
CA 94303-3024 USA
Phone: +1-415-856-9018 Fax: +1-415-856-6591
e-mail: 72540.113@Compuserve.Com
Communications Standards Review is a journal providing current technical information on work in progress on communications standards (including fax) in US and international standards forums.

EMMS [Bi-weekly, $595 per year]
published by Telecommunications Reports
1333 H Street, 11th Floor
Washington DC 20005
Phone: (202) 842-0520 Fax: (202) 842-3047

Human Communications Digest [Quarterly, $225 per year within US, $235 Canada and International]
published by Human Communications
12 Kevin Drive, Danbury CT, 06811-2901
Phone: (203) 746-4367 FAX: (203) 746-4367
"HCD in depth coverage of fax and related standards trends in the US and International standards bodies. Most issues also feature analysis on key standards trends." (description provided by publisher)

Also offers regular courses on Group 3 Fax Technology in conjunction with Genoa Technology.

FAX Integrator (formerly NetFax News) [Monthly, $contact publisher]
published by Davidson Consulting
530 N. Lamer Street, Burbank, CA, 91506
Phone: (818) 842-5117 FAX: (818) 842-5488
Also publishes Scouting Reports and Buyers' Guides

Fax Focus [weekly, $250, free with membership in the AFA)
published by the American Facsimile Association
Phone: (215) 963-9110 Fax: (215) 451-1156

I.9 Books on Fax

"FAX: Digital Facsimile Technology & Applications", 2nd Ed. 338pp.
by Kenneth R. McConnell, Dennis Bodson, Richard Schaphorst
1992, Artech House, Norwood, MA. ISBN: 0-89006-495-5
(Order Book No. H04495, $78, Phone: 1 800 225 9977 or 1 617 769-9750)
"C Programmer's Guide to Serial Communications.", 2nd Ed.
by Joe Campbell; SAMS Publishing; 1994; ISBN: 0-672-30286-1
(The main addition of the second edition was a monster chapter on facsimile including redrawn T.30 flow charts and narratives to walk the reader through various scenarios (e.g., EOP, EOM, MPS). It's got good source code for T.4 encoding and decoding. In general, I believe it's the only intelligible discussion of the subject available to programmers.) Information supplied by the author, Joe Campbell (
"C++ Communications Utilities"
by Michael Holmes and Bob Flanders; Ziff-Davis
(Contains a good description of fax software and includes C++ source and exe code for Class 1 fax sending and receiving. Courtesy Bruce Seiler,

I.10 Other Sources of Information on Fax

More detailed information on image file formats and compression may be obtained from the FAQ. The latest version of this FAQ is available as .

Information on the Microsoft Windows Telephony API spec is kept in the following FTP directory:

Information on the Internet/fax gateway project may be obtained by sending e-mail to:

A mailing list related to the Internet/fax gateway project may be reached through:

The full text of the DCA/Intel Communicating Applications Specification (CAS) may be obtained from

If you want comprehensive information on fax-on-demand and/or broadcast fax suppliers, contact Sarah Stambler at Techprose, 370 Central Park West, #210, New York, NY, 10025, (212) 222 1765, Fax: (212) 678-6357. ( She sells a number of newsletters and reports on FoD and fax broadcast technology.

See also the section on related FAQs and URLs (below).

Vendors BBSs

ZyXEL BBS: (714) 693-0762
Supra BBS: (503) 967-2444
Intel BBS: (503) 645-6275

I.11 Conferences on Fax

BIS Strategic Decisions

BIS Strategic Decisions runs several conferences on fax and related technologies. Historically they ran the "Facsimile and Image Communications Conference" every spring and every fall they held the "Annual Computer Fax Conference. In 1995, however, BIS is planning to merge these two conferences into a single "FAXWORLD'95" conference December 4-6, 1995, in San Francisco.

EUROFAX'95 is scheduled for Amsterdam, October 25-27'95.

For more information on BIS conferences, call: (800) 874-9980 ext 178 or (617) 982-9500 ext 178, (Fax: 617 982-1724)

I.12 Associations Related to Fax Technology

American Facsimile Association
Phone: (215) 963-9110 Fax: (215) 451-1156
International Computer Fax Association
Phone (617) 982-9500

I.13 Fax-on-Demand Phone Numbers

This is a list of collected fax-on-demand numbers for various major computer companies. Please email any additions or corrections to:

  • Hewlett-Packard 1 800 333 1917 All Products (?)
  • Intel 1 800 525 3019 All Products (?)
  • WordPerfect 1 801 228-9923 WordPerfect Solutions Guide
  • Frame Technology 1 408-428-6153 FrameFacts

I.14 Related FAQs

FAQs Related to FAX

FAQ: How can I send a fax from the Internet?
HylaFax (formerly FlexFax) Frequently Asked Questions
GammaLink intelligent fax boards, Frequently Asked Questions.
Mgetty+Sendfax with Vgetty Extensions (FAQ)
Object-Fax Frequently Asked Questions
Windows NT Fax Solutions Frequently Asked Questions

FAQs Related to Modems

Digicom Frequently Asked Questions
NetComm Frequently Asked Questions List
Practical Peripherals Frequently Asked Questions
Configuring the Telebit Trailblazer for Use with UNIX
ZyXEL Modems Frequently Asked Questions List
ZyXEL U1496 series modems resellers FAQ

Other FAQs of Related Interest Frequently Asked Questions (Information on compression algorithms)

I.15 Fax-Related URLs

For the URLs of vendors, please see the Product Information section of this FAQ.

Standards and Related Information

ITU (The standards setting body for fax, modems, and telephony.)
Coies of many ITU (formerly CCITT) standards can be obtained through their gopher server

Standards are in the ITU section. Those related to fax are in the T Series, modem standards are in the V Series.

Gray Associates (manufacturers of fax protocol testing equipment) also have an in-depth discussion of fax protocols at

Supra Corporation has put draft versions of the Class 1 and Class 2 specs up on FTP (the final, official versions are copyright and cannot legally be made available over the net). Download and

WWW Virtual Library

Communications Section
Facsimile Communications Sub-Section




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